In early days of personal computers, a series of “Works” applications were released with a few ideas in common. Software packages such as Microsoft Works, AppleWorks GS (for the Apple II GS), and ClarisWorks, all contained a package of simplified applications sold as a set and usually were accessed through a launcher application. For example, when launching AppleWorks, a user would launch the application and decide if they wanted to create a word processing file, a spreadsheet, a drawing document, or a database by clicking the appropriate icon.
ClarisWorks has a complicated history. In general, it began as AppleWorks (with earlier versions under different names), switched to ClarisWorks, switched back to AppleWorks, and was replaced by iWork.
This CD is an installer for ClarisWorks 4.0. Although undated, its version number places it in 1996.
A fascinating history of ClarisWorks/AppleWorks is available from Bob Hearn on a page published by MIT. I wholeheartedly agree with the author who writes, “RIP ClarisWorks, ‘the best-loved application for the Mac,’ 1991–2007.”
Interestingly, this history is somewhat preserved by Apple’s iWork concept. Currently, Apple’s three productivity apps—Keynote, Pages, and Numbers—are referred to collectively as iWork. Although the apps are separate, their user interfaces and behaviors make the apps function very much as a set. This may also be the reason so many users incorrectly refer to iWork as “iWorks.”
My collection of Apple CD and DVD media includes operating systems, applications, software collections that shipped with devices, promotional media, diagnostic tools, and educational content. In general, Apple-branded CD or DVD examples in original packaging have been presented separately, while single discs or collections of discs are presented chronologically.
Apple CDs from 1996 include:
Macintosh System 7.5 Update 2.0 For system software versions 7.5, 7.5.1, and 7.5.2 (U95073-052B, 1996)
Apple LaserWriter CD-ROM Version 1.0 For Mac OS and Windows (CD Version 1.0, 691-1229-A, 1996)
Apple Color Printing CD (1996)
Apple Macintosh CD, Power Macintosh 5260/100 (SSW Version 7.5.3, CD Version 1.0, 691-0992-A, 1996)
Macintosh PowerBook 1400 series (SSW Version 7.5.3, CD Version 1.0, 691-0954-A, 1996)
Apple Macintosh CD, Macintosh PowerBook System Software for PowerBook 5300/2300/190 computers and PowerPC hardware upgrades (SSW Version 7.5.2, CD Version 1.2.1, 691-0911-A, 1996)
Apple Internet Connection Kit (Version 1.1.5, 691-1096-A, 1996)
Apple Network Administrator Toolkit (U96073-026A, 1996)
In 1996 Macintosh computer system software was able to fit on a single CD. Apple used a standard white CD envelope with a white cloth-like back and a clear plastic front for system CDs. When multiple CDs were required, each CD shipped in a separate standard envelope.
Beginning in 1995 with the PowerBook 190 and 5300 models, Apple laptops shipped with an expansion bay for both Apple and third-party drives. The drives were “hot-swappable,” meaning that the user could pull out one drive and replace it with another without restarting the laptop.
This PowerBook Floppy Drive Expansion Bay Module from 1996 works with PowerBook 1400-series laptops.
The Macintosh PowerBook 1400cs/133 featured a 133 MHz PowerPC 603e processor, 16 MB of RAM, a 1.3 GB hard drive and an 8X CD-ROM drive. The color dual-scan display measured 11.3 inches. The PowerBook 1400cs was similar to the PowerBook 1400c, but the “s” in “cs” indicated a higher quality active-matrix display.
The PowerBook 1400 series was the first PowerBook to use an internal CD-ROM drive and stackable memory modules (allowing more RAM to be installed in the limited space inside a laptop). This PowerBook also included a clear cover on the outer case and shipped with pre-printed “BookCovers” to customize the look of each PowerBook. (A matching dark gray cover was also included for those not wishing to customize.)
Although I have previously included other PowerBook 1400-series laptop examples on my blog, I acquired this model complete with its collection of BookCovers. I wanted to document this laptop along with this interesting design feature not used on an Apple laptop before or since.
PowerBook 1400-series laptops shipped with seven different BookCovers by six different designers. Although each BookCover is two-sided, one side of each BookCover includes a design from a featured designer, and the opposite side uses a pattern in one of seven different colors with a similar, but uncredited, design. The cardboard envelope containing the BookCovers provides a brief bio of each of the designers:
Jim Mitchell, Sydney Jim Mitchell is a New Zealand artist currently living in Sydney. He is one of the main artists working for Mambo Graphics, Australia’s surf and streetwear company through which his style has become widely recognized. Jim also works for a variety of local and international agencies and magazines, and regularly exhibits his paintings and print work.
Brad Holland, New York One of the best known and most highly acclaimed figures in American Illustration, Brad has led a very prolific and successful career, receiving more medals from the Society of Illustrators than any other artist in the organization’s history. His work includes covers for The New Yorker, Time, Newsweek and The New York Times Magazine. He continues to work, lecture and exhibit throughout the world.
Carlos Segura, Chicago Carlos Segura was born in Cuba in 1956 and moved to Florida at the age of 9. He began his career in New Orleans, moving up to Chicago in 1980 where he worked for several advertising agencies before founding his own design company, Segura Inc., in 1991. This was followed in 1994 with the birth of T-26, (a new digital type foundry) helping Carlos to establish himself as a leading force in American graphic design.
Michael Bartalos, San Francisco Michael Bartalos was born in West Germany in 1959 and is of Hungarian ancestry. Since graduating from the Pratt Institute in 1982, he has worked extensively in the graphic arts in the US and Japan. Recent projects include his children’s book, Shadowville, designs for Swatch watches, and the 32-cent Marathon commemorative stamp for the US Postal Service.
David Karam, San Francisco David Karam is a partner of Post Tool Design, a design studio he established in 1993 with Gigi Biederman in San Francisco. Post Tool, specializing in print, interaction and multimedia design, quickly built up a client list including Warner Records, Colossal Pictures, Sony Music and Swatch Watch and have been featured in magazines such as Rolling Stone, Communication Arts and ID Magazine.
Keiji Ito, Tokyo Born in Tokyo in 1958, Keiji Ito is one of Asia’s leading editorial and advertising illustrators, as well as an new and innovative stage and poster designer. His paintings have been exhibited in numerous shows internationally since 1989. He works out of his Tokyo studio, LopLop Design Inc. and is the author and illustrator of three books: Ninifuni, Datecraft 1994 Timescape and Klin Klan.
I remember using my own PowerBook 1400 for a few years while I was teaching and I designed my own custom BookCovers. Unfortunately, I’ve been unable to locate any of my original BookCover designs.
The AppleDesign Keyboard replaced the Apple Extended Keyboard II in 1994 and its design was meant to complement the design of Macintosh computers of the time. This keyboard included one additional ADB port (instead of two) that was somewhat hidden on the bottom of the keyboard. The ADB connector cable was permanently attached to the keyboard, while previous keyboard models used two ADB ports and shipped with an ADB cable that could be removed.
This keyboard was also released in black to match a black Performa 5420 (available in Europe), and a black Power Macintosh 5500 (available in Asia).
As of 2020 Apple has released approximately 20 external keyboard designs. In general, Apple Macintosh keyboards are different from standard keyboards because they include a Command key (⌘) for shortcuts; an Option key (⌥) for entering diacritical marks and special characters; and a Help or fn (function) key. Earlier Apple keyboards also included a power key (◁), while newer keyboards include eject (⏏).
The PowerBook 1400c/117 featured a 117 MHz PowerPC 603e processor, 16 MB of RAM, and a 750 MB or 1.0 GB hard drive. The color active-matrix display measured 11.3 inches. The PowerBook 1400c/117 display supported 16-bit color for the built-in display, but could also support up to 8-bit color on an external monitor with an optional video card.
The PowerBook 1400 series was the first PowerBook to use an internal CD-ROM drive and stackable memory modules. This PowerBook also offered a clear cover on the outer case and shipped with preprinted “BookCovers” to customize the look of each PowerBook.
I used a PowerBook 1400c for several years and regularly designed and printed my own BookCovers. At the time, I used this laptop for several music arranging and composition applications. Using the Passport Encore music notation software, I plugged my PowerBook 1400c into a MIDI interface and it controlled my ProteusFX sound module.